Is Fish Safe to Eat? No More Fears!

We aren’t eating enough fish! Well, actually I am. But on average, Americans eat waaaay less seafood than the recommended couple servings per week. Here’s the bottom line right at the top: Yes, fish is safe to eat! And it’s really good for you. Let me help you bring more seafood to the table.

Norwegian Salmon with veggies

Photo compliments of Norwegian Seafood Council

Disclosure: I consult to the Norwegian Seafood Council (NSC) because I love their products, their practices, and their commitment to sustainability. The contents of this post largely come from a few programs I’ve worked on and presentations I’ve made on behalf of NSC. I’m not paid to write this post. I’m doing it because I really want you to eat more fish and to feel good about your choices.

Find out more about why I love Norwegian seafood in My Fascinating Day on a Norwegian Fish Farm.

Is fish safe to eat? And other barriers to eating more seafood.

I’ve spent 20+ years working with people on their eating habits, so I’ve heard a few of their worries about eating fish. Before tackling those, here’s a quick reminder about why I’m a fish pusher (besides tastes and versatility). Fish is good for the brain, eyes, heart, and blood vessels. And it’s plenty nutritious too! Find out more about why fish is good for you.

Worry #1: Fish is too expensive, especially wild caught fish.

Don’t worry: Both wild caught and farmed fish are nutritious. In fact, farmed salmon has more of the critical omega-3 fatty acids than wild salmon has. Often frozen fish is cheaper than fresh, and canned fish is another terrific, less-expensive option. They all give you tons of nutrition and health benefits. Choose what fits your budget.

Comparison of nutrients in wild and farmed salmon

Source: USDA ARS National Nutrient Database

Worry #2: Fish is contaminated with PCBs and dioxins.

Don’t worry: Often when people ask me “is fish safe,” they really want to know about PCBs. While it’s true that fish do have these toxins, their levels have been declining significantly since new regulations and industry efforts were implemented over the last 4 decades. And it’s not just food from the sea that carries these compounds. About a third of our total exposure to PCBs and dioxins comes from beef, pork and chicken. Less than 10% comes from seafood. Even about one-fifth of our total exposure comes from vegetables.

Also consider that just because something is a hazard – like PCBs – doesn’t mean that it causes harm. PCBs are a hazard. So is a shark. So is the sun. But when exposure to the hazard is low, the risk is also low. A shark is a hazard, but my risk for harm is low when I’m looking at it through the glass of an aquarium. My risk is high when I’m swimming in open waters with a shark nearby. Likewise, the sun can damage my skin and cause skin cancer, but I lower my risk by wearing a hat, sunglasses, and sunscreen. Not to mention that I hide my super pale skin under a beach umbrella! Eating a couple servings of fish each week is considered low exposure.

In Norway, officials monitor the amounts of nutrients and contaminants in their seafood. And you can see exactly what they find on their website. I think you’ll be impressed.

  • Pro tip: To lower your risk even more, you can prepare your fish in ways to get rid of some of the PCBs and dioxins. Remove or puncture the skin before cooking to allow the fat to drain off because PCBs and dioxins are fat-soluble. Trim away the fat along the back and the belly, and cook your fish on a rack to allow the fat to drain away.

how to remove PCBs from fish

Worry #3: The mercury in seafood is toxic.

Don’t worry: In amounts too high, mercury is definitely toxic. The EPA and FDA have guidelines for consuming seafood for vulnerable people – pregnant women, lactating women, women who may become pregnant and children. These groups should avoid high-mercury fish (king mackerel, marlin, orange roughy, shark, swordfish, tilefish from the Gulf of Mexico, and bigeye tuna). They should not avoid other seafood – specifically low-mercury fish that are also a good source of omega-3 fatty acids, like salmon, freshwater trout and sardines. And that’s because eating fish during pregnancy, lactation and childhood is associated with greater neurodevelopment in children.

What about men and women who won’t be getting pregnant? Should they also avoid these higher-mercury fish? Only if they eat lots and lots of seafood, but not if they’re sticking to the typical guidelines of a couple servings of a variety of seafood each week.

Worry #4: Farmed salmon has colored added to it.

Don’t worry: Both wild salmon and farmed salmon get their orange-y pinkish color from astaxanthin, a cousin to beta-carotene. Wild salmon get in from their wild diet. Farmed salmon get it from their food. There’s no color added to the flesh ever.

Worry #5: I don’t know how to cook it.

Don’t worry: This is my favorite barrier to help people overcome! Fish is really very simple to cook at home, and it’s super versatile. At a recent NSC event, Chef Andy Tessier shared his favorite super simple way to cook nearly any fish fillet: season with a little salt and pepper and perhaps some lemon, cook it on the stove top in a little oil, then finish it in the oven. I love this idea! There’s no flipping the fish. No crying over broken fillets!

Here are a couple of the dishes we prepared at this event. I’ve got to tell you though, they were not as simple as salt, pepper, stove top, oven, plate. If you feel competent in the kitchen then definitely give something elaborate a try. Otherwise, see if you can get someone to make it for you.

Healthy sous vide steelhead trout on a platter

Sous vide steelhead trout

Norwegian Haddock with Harissa vinaigrette

Norwegian haddock with harissa vinaigrette

I’ve been advising my patients to try different recipes by first thinking of the flavors they already enjoy. Then search online for something like this: “healthy fish recipes with lemon and capers” or “easy healthy fish recipes with Parmesan.” Give it a try. I think you’ll find plenty of things worth trying. And don’t forget about ready-to-eat tuna and salmon. I enjoy the ones from Starkist and Chicken of the Sea.

  • Pro tip: Don’t forget about carryover heat. Fish, like steak and chicken, can get dried out and yucky from overcooking. Carryover heat is that heat that continues to cook the food even after you’ve removed it from the oven or burner. Take your fish off the heat just before it’s at desired doneness. According to the USDA, the safe minimum internal temperature for fish is 145°F.

And give these super simple, healthy fish recipes a try:

Yes, fish is safe to eat! What your favorite, simple way to eat more seafood?

Jill Weisenberger

I'm Jill, and I believe simple changes in your mindset and health habits can bring life-changing rewards. And I don't believe in willpower. It's waaaay overrated. As a food-loving registered dietitian nutritionist, certified diabetes care and education specialist and certified health and wellness coach, I've helped thousands of people solve their food and nutrition problems. If you're looking for a better way to master this whole healthy eating/healthy living thing or if you're trying to prevent or manage diabetes or heart problems, you'll find plenty of resources right here.

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  1. Jarom Linton on March 17, 2020 at 8:16 pm

    It’s a great thing to hear that the toxins in fish have been falling since new regulations have been introduced. My partner and I want to be much healthier this year and we need to eat more fish. I’ve heard that fish has so many important vitamins and nutrients that our bodies need.

    • Jill Weisenberger on March 17, 2020 at 9:09 pm

      Indeed! Thanks for reading.

  2. Tyler Johnson on June 8, 2020 at 10:11 am

    That’s good to know that there shouldn’t be a problem with mercury by eating seafood. I had heard that some types of fish contain mercury, so I’m glad that if they do, it’s in negligible amounts. I’ll have to consider eating seafood more often, now that I know it will be perfectly safe.

    • Jill Weisenberger on June 8, 2020 at 10:15 am

      Some types of seafood contain quite a bit of mercury and not good for some populations. It’s best to follow federal and local guidelines such as these and these.

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Jill Weisenberger

I believe simple changes in health habits can bring you life-changing rewards.

And I believe willpower is way overrated.

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